The Republic of Botswana covers some 570,000 Km3 at a mean altitude of 1000 m, with about 84 % of the land surface being Kalahari sand. The climate is continental, arid to semi-arid, with mean maximum temperatures rising to 31 °C in December and January, when diurnal variation is about 13 °C . The mean rainfall is 400 mm per year, but the distribution is erratic. Over 90 % of the total rainfall falls between October and March. 

J. CM Trail

Proceedings of the World Congress on Genetics Applied to Livestock Production, Volume 2, Madrid, Spain, 231–236, 1974
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