Most breeding goals in dairy and dual purpose cattle include production traits (milk, fat, growth), because they are important to maximize net returns of dairymen. Recently, more interest has been put on reproduction traits (fertility, calving performance). The value of an easy calving and a live calf increases when herd size gets larger and difficulties arise in hiring qualified herdsmen. The calf losses have, especially in dual purpose breeds, where calves are sold for beef production at a high price, a weighty financial consequence.
Proceedings of the World Congress on Genetics Applied to Livestock Production, Volume 8. Symposia (2), , 189–194, 1982
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