Results are reviewed from the cattle Germ Plasm Evaluation Program at the Roman L. Hruska U.S Meat ANimal Research Center comparing performance of top-crosses by 20 sire breeds.  The variation that exists in biological traits important for beef production is vast and under a high degree of genetic control.  Significant genetic change can result from 1) selection among breeds, 2) use of crossbreeding to exploit heterosis and 3) selection within breeds.

L. V Cundiff, K. E Gregory, R. M Koch, G. E Dickerson

Proceedings of the World Congress on Genetics Applied to Livestock Production, Volume IX. Breeding programs for dairy and beef cattle, water buffalo, sheep, and goats., , 271–282, 1986
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