Embryo cloning consists of transferring the nucleus of an embryonic cell to an enucleated ovum. The clone then develops into a genetic identical to the donor embryo. Although the principles of cloning are similar across species, differences exist. Depending on the source of recipient cytoplasm, the timing of activation may significantly effect subsequent clone development. Similarly, recent information regarding the cell cycle suggests that biphasic nuclear-cytoplasmic interactions effect development as well. The time of the maternal zygotic transition was once considered to be a point of irreversible cell commitment. Cloning studies in cattle and sheep indicate this is not the case for all mammals. Embryo cloning in cattle is now available commercially. The technology in its present form results in a 3 to 1 improvement in progeny production over standard embryo transfer procedures. The embryo cloning procedure promises to be a valuable tool for increasing the progeny of rare and superior cattle.
Proceedings of the World Congress on Genetics Applied to Livestock Production, Volume XVI. Poultry, fish and horse genetics and breeding, growth and reproduction, immune response and disease resistance., , 323–333, 1990
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