The production of transgenic livestock has extended and improved classical breeding techniques. The objects of manipulation are individual genes rather than the entire genome of an animal. At the moment DNA-microinjection into the pronuclei of zygotes is still the most efficient and in pigs the only available technique of transferring genes. Transfer of genes involves collection, manipulation, microinjection, cultivation, and transfer of early embryos on the one hand. On the other hand molecularbiological techniques allowing cloning of gene constructs, preparation of suitable injection solutions, and techniques allowing detection of integrated and expressed transgenes in transgenic animals have to be employed. Gene transfer in pigs and other domestic animals is usually less efficient than in mice and yields approximately 1% transgenics per injected zygote. 

B. Brenig, M. Muller, G. Brem

Proceedings of the World Congress on Genetics Applied to Livestock Production, Volume XIII. Plenary lectures, molecular genetics and mapping, selection, prediction and estimation., , 41–48, 1990
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