Animal models for calving ease (scored 1 to 5) and fertility (non-return rate 90) including both, direct/patemal and maternal genetic effects were developed. The fixed effects accounted for were herd*year, season and parity in both models, sex of calf for calving ease and time of first calving and time interval from calving to first insemination for fertility in addition. Some 8.6 mio. calvings and 6.7 mio. first inseminations from German Fleckvieh were evaluated. Solutions were obtained through iterating on data, for calving ease the reduced animal model was applied. Breeding values ranged from -0.42 to +0.43 scores in calving ease and from -10% to +10% for non-return rate 90. The results show, that improvements even in low heritable traits can be made.
Proceedings of the World Congress on Genetics Applied to Livestock Production, Volume 17. Genetics and breeding of dairy and beef cattle, swine and horses, , 105–108, 1994
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