This paper arrives at two different routes of development of national breeding programmes. One is coined as a programme of concerted crossbred breeders. In that case breeders collaborate in a closed selection programme, and pure breeding stock is available withing the programme only. The product of the system is parent stock and the organization of these systems very much resembles a breeding company except the ownership of breeding pigs (i.e. company vs breeders). The Danish breeding programme and the programme of the Dutch Pig Herdbook are examples of this route. These systems are expected to be competitive. Another route is where breeding value estiation across herds and resulting breeding stock are used by various commercial pig producers and integrated pig chains. The breeding stock may be produced in several selection programmes. This situation exists in France and Canada and to a lesser extent in the USA and Australia. Especially in France the situation is expected to be stable because of strongly organized commercial pig production sharing breeding stock from a common -national- source. It is expected that integrated pig chains organizing commercial pig production will be increasingly important in situations were markets of supply replace markets of demand. National breeding programmes only may survive in such situations if they can reach a strong degree of organized collaboration between breeders.
Proceedings of the World Congress on Genetics Applied to Livestock Production, Volume 17. Genetics and breeding of dairy and beef cattle, swine and horses, , 371–377, 1994
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