A multibreed genetic evaluation of 1,043,153 animals including 412,955 purebred and 630,198 crossbred was performed for direct and maternal genetic effects of calving ease, birth weight, weaning gain and post weaning gain in the herd and at central test stations. A multiple trait animal model with maternal effects was used with breed accounted for by tracing all pedigrees to purebred parentage and grouping unknown purebred ancestors into phantom groups by breed-year. The distribution of evaluations by breed indicate that breed effects are adequately handled through phantom groups in a multibreed evaluation.

S. P Miller, J. W Wilton, P. G Sullivan, S. L Armstrong, S. J Griffiths, G. E Vandervoort

Proceedings of the World Congress on Genetics Applied to Livestock Production, Volume 17. Genetics and breeding of dairy and beef cattle, swine and horses, , 245–248, 1994
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