The relation between yield traits on one side and fat content and protein content on the other is expressed by negative correlation coefficients. This paper presents some aspects of the genetic background involving polymorphism of casein loci as genetic markers. The estimated direct effects of markers and the results of linkage analysis are considered in this connection. The estimated direct effects of markers and results of linkage analysis involving casein markers and putative QTL point out that the casein genes are involved in this divergence. There are clear suggestions to different directions of casein genotypic influence to yield of milk fat and protein and fat and protein content according to the results from estimated direct marker effects. That means that the casein genes may be closely linked to QTL for those traits (LOD score 1.09... 1.90). The LOD score was 3.03 indicating a medium linkage for fat content
and K-casein. The estimated effects show a positive influence of K-CNA on milk yield, fat yield and protein yield and a simultaneous negative influence on fat content and protein content. 

G. Freyer, Z. Liu, L. Panicke, G. Erhardt

Proceedings of the World Congress on Genetics Applied to Livestock Production, Volume 25: Lactation; growth and efficiency; meat quality; role of exotic breeds in the tropics; design of village breeding programs; n, , 59–62, 1998
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